Recent events have left no doubt: cyber attacks already present a substantial threat to critical infrastructure and other industrial systems. Companies in the energy, chemicals, transportation, manufacturing, infrastructure or other relevant sectors should understand and be able to respond to these threats. Indeed, numerous reports have described sophisticated nation state actors’ efforts to compromise the electric grid, and leading security firms have analyzed destructive attacks on industrial systems around the world. An attack on a Florida municipality’s water system, for example, highlighted how attacks can lead to physical injury or environmental harm. Likewise, the recent pipeline shutdown showed how cyber attacks on critical infrastructure could have substantial ripple effects across the economy.

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